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Ivanov's solar vegetarian - a large harvest with a minimum investment of time and effort.
Greenhouses and greenhouses for warmth-loving crops in the risky farming area are quite popular.
However, we are all accustomed to typical, traditional buildings, where the conditions for growing vegetables and flowers are approximately the same.
Sunny Vegetarian has a number of fundamental differences from traditional garden structures to shelter plants from the cold.
A garden wonder with fantastic possibilities
Solar Vegetarian is a new generation greenhouse, a type of solar greenhouse, introduced by the physicist A.V. Ivanov. The structure was designed back in the 50s of the last century, and immediately demonstrated fantastic opportunities get large yields in any climatic zone.
Growing vegetable garden crops in a vegetarian way allows you to get a harvest a month earlier, and its value can be increased several times.
IMPORTANT: The solar greenhouse will allow you to grow on your own plot not only crops traditional for Russia, but also very exotic plants, the cultivation of which is impossible in an ordinary greenhouse.
The appearance of this structure resembles an ordinary back-wall greenhouse, often found in many summer cottages. The fundamental difference is the special internal structure of the vegetarian.
Vegetarian Ivanov - the destruction of all stereotypes of growing thermophilic crops in indoor spaces. From an ordinary greenhouse or greenhouse construction differs in the following parameters:
- Vegetarian does not need additional heating at temperatures starting from minus 10 degrees. Inside the structure, under such conditions, the temperature will remain within 18-20 degrees. If night frosts come up to minus 15, a balance of plus 12 degrees is maintained inside;
- The Ivanov solar greenhouse is equipped with a special air circulation systemThe interior space of the vegetarian does not need aeration. What is especially important, because during this procedure, the greenhouse loses moisture, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, and the presence of these substances in the air is necessary for the full development of plants;
- In a vegetarian it is preserved optimum moisture for plants, so there is no need for frequent watering.
REFERENCE: Ivanov, on an area of 17 hectares, even purely southern citrus fruits were grown. The harvest of tomatoes and cucumbers was 44 kg per square. And this is in the absence of modern cultivation technologies, invented only in the 21st century.
What is the advantage of the design?
Vegetarian Ivanov has a special structure, due to which maximizes solar energy to maintain the internal microclimate.
Basically, it is a rectangular building with a flat, transparent roof. The cover is arranged at an angle of about 20 degrees.
The roof of the vegetarian is absolutely light-proof... Cellular polycarbonate is the ideal option. The side and front walls of the vegetarian are also constructed from polycarbonate or glass.
The northern side is being built by capital and covered with mirror foil or painted with white glossy paint. Alternatively, the vegetarian is attached to the wall of the house, barn, and even to the fence. But it is possible to build a separate building with a capital northern wall.
If the veggie is being built separately from the home, it is advisable insulate the back wall foam sheets. The height of the northern opaque wall should be from two to two and a half meters.
The sun's rays enter the plant through the transparent roof and walls, accumulate, reflecting from the back wall-screen.
Moreover, the lower the position of the sun, the more its energy is used inside vegetarian. The slope of the building in the amount of 25 degrees, increases the absorption of heat, in comparison with conventional structures, by 3-4.5 times.
As for the interior arrangement of the solar greenhouse, then the beds inside are arranged in steps from north to south... Each ridge is fastened with brick, wood or metal curbs.
This arrangement of ridges and walls contributes to the maximum penetration of sunlight into the interior space. In addition, the reflection of the rays is reduced as much as possible, which reduces sun loss.
The ridges inside the vegetarian must be made narrow, with wide passages between them. The plants inside it are impressive in size, so they need a garter to a horizontal trellis located almost under the roof.
REFERENCE: In the summer, the construction of a vegetarian allows you to increase the energy intake by 5 times, in the winter - by 20-21. In the event of a temporary onset of frost, in the absence of heating, a simple heater can be inserted into the ventilation system, and the internal temperature will immediately rise.
In case of frost below 15 degrees in the greenhouse heating can be provided... In this case, a vegetarian is suitable for year-round use.
Air exchange in the greenhouse
The problem of loss of nutrient medium for CO2 plants in Ivanov's construction is solved by creating closed cycle of air exchange.
In the depths of the soil, at a distance of about 35 centimeters from the surface and about 60 centimeters from each other, pipes (plastic or asbestos-cement) are hidden. The pipes are laid in a south-north direction. The ends of the pipes are brought out from below to the surface of the earth, and the upper ones are connected to a collector located across the pipes.
IMPORTANT: Today, PVC pipes are the most suitable for vegetation. The main thing is that they are thin-walled and at least 110 mm in diameter.
In the center of the collector, there is a vertical pipe with a control damper, which opens onto the roof through the north wall. The outlet of this pipe directly inside the vegetarian is supplied with a fan.
The dampers installed in the collector (at the top and bottom of the fan) regulate the temperature inside the greenhouse. In a sunny vegetation in winter, when the outside temperature is minus ten, the internal heat is enough to maintain a temperature of 25 degrees.
The soil is the heat accumulatorabsorbing it from the air. The heat accumulated in the upper part of the structure is artificially redirected downward. At night, the reverse process of transferring heat from the soil back into the air takes place.
Same vegan greenhouse ventilation system saves plants from overheating on hot days... Excess heat is removed outside using the same pipes. Now the lower damper under the fan closes, and the upper one opens.
In this case, the direction of the flow of the supplied air is reversed. The fan drives it outward to maintain a normal indoor temperature and protect the plants from overheating.
REFERENCE: The ventilation system of the vegetarian also helps to maintain optimal humidity inside, which significantly reduces the need for watering the plants.
Solar Vegetable Watering System
For irrigation of plants grown in the solar greenhouse, soil and air moisture is usedcollected by a specially organized system to collect it.
Pipes laid under the soil have holes in the bottom at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other. Passing through cold pipes, warm air contributes to the formation of condensation on the walls. The moisture collected in this way seeps into the soil, from where the roots of the plants absorb it.
At the same time, a layer of expanded clay is laid under the pipes to spread moisture along the entire length of the bed. External irrigation of grown crops with such an irrigation system is not needed.
In such an irrigation system, the quality of the water is also a plus. It is absolutely free from salts and lime, while it is filled with ammonia from the decomposition of organic matter. In case of a lack of moisture in the greenhouse, drip irrigation is provided.
IMPORTANT: Watering can be turned on only when the ventilation is working to avoid waterlogging.
This organization of watering is most favorable for plants.... When watering, organized over the surface, moisture evaporates actively, most of it does not reach the root system. With this watering, the roots, trying to get moisture, approach the surface, which also negatively affects growth.
Vegetarian, due to the flow of moisture into the soil, contributes to the development of plants with powerful, maximally enriched with moisture and nutrition of the root system.
The creator of the vegetarian A.V. Ivanov dreamed of having his brainchild in every home in order to tame the energy of the sun and provide its inhabitants with vegetables. Currently every amateur gardener has the opportunity to use his invention to increase the yield on his site.
The photo shows a new generation of solar greenhouses:
Useful video about solar vegetation: